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National Child Exploitation Coordination Centre (NCECC) - Fact Sheets - Networking

Protocols

 

FTP (File transfer protocol): Used to exchange files over the Internet.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): An Internet protocol used to provide electronic mail services.

DNS (Domain name server): An Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses .

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol): A protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network.

Addressing

 

Gateway : A device on a network that serves as an entrance to another network. A gateway on a LAN is typically the address of the router. This can be found in Windows by typing “ipconfig” into a command prompt. A sample IP would look as follows: 192.168.0.1

Hostname : The name of the computer on the network. This can be found by typing “ipconfig /all” in the command prompt.

IP (Internet Protocol) address : A number that uniquely identifies every host on a network. This can be found by typing “ipconfig” into a command prompt. An example of a LAN IP would be 192.168.0.11, and an example of a WAN IP would be 216.221.95.111

Dynamic IP address : An IP that changes each time the computer connects to the network. Usually used on a dial-up connection.

Static IP address : An IP that stays the same each time the computer connects to the network. Normally used on a high speed or broadband connection.

ISP (Internet service provider): A company that provides access to the Internet. Some examples include Bell , Cogeco, Sprint, and AOL.

Physical address : An address associated with a particular network device. This is also known as a MAC address and can be retrieved by typing “ipconfig /all” into a command prompt in the Windows Operating System.

Subnet mask : A 32-bit address mask used in IP to specify a particular subnet. This can be retrieved by typing “ipconfig /all” into a Windows command prompt.

To retrieve any of these items in a Linux operating system substitute the “ipconfig” command with the “ifconfig” command in the terminal.

Cabling

 

Category 5 Cable:

  • A network cable that consists of four twisted pairs of copper wire terminated by an RJ45 connector.
  • Cat5 cable supports frequencies up to 100MHz, and speeds up to 1000Mbps.

Coax Cable:

  • A type of wire cable that consists of center wire surrounded by insulation and then a grounded shield of braided wire.
  • Primarily used in the cable television industry, but is also widely used to convey Ethernet signals in computer networks.

Fiber Optic Cable:

  • A cable consisting of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of conducting modulated light transmission.
  • More expensive than other mediums.
  • Not susceptible to electromagnetic interference.
  • High data transfer rates.

Network Configurations

 

LAN (Local–Area Network) : A computer network that spans a small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or a small group of buildings.

Ethernet : A LAN architecture that supports data transfer rates of 10Mps up to 1Gps. This architecture uses Cat5 cabling to get its desired speeds.

WAN (Wide-Area Network): A computer network that spans a geographical area. Typically a WAN consists of many LANs.

Broadband Internet : A high speed, high capacity, transmission medium carried on coaxial, Cat5 or Fiber-optic cables with a wider bandwidth than conventional telephone lines.

Dial-up Internet : A connection that uses the public switched telephone network rather than a dedicated circuit. The connection is established using the phone line, the Internet service provider’s software, a user name and password, and an authentication process done by the Internet service provider.

Terms

 

Bandwidth: The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time, usually expressed in bits per second or bytes per second.

References

www.webopedia.com

Networking Glossary http://iishelp.web.cern.ch/IISHelp/iis/htm/core/iigloss.htm

Produced by:
The National Child Exploitation Coordination Centre
Strategic and Operations Support Services
Research and Development Division