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National Child Exploitation Coordinaton Centre (NCECC)

Annotated Bibliography...

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Bancroft, John. (2004). Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model. The Journal of Sex Research, 41(3), p. 225-234.

Bancroft’s article examined what was defined as “out of control” sexual behaviour. A study of 31 sex addicts, by means of surveys and questionnaires, attempted to determine possible causes of such behavioural addictions. Mood was closely examined as a possible influential factor related to increased sexual interests. This article indicated that although there were insufficient results at the time to make any significant findings, there were areas that would be of great interest for further examination. For example dissociation from reality, and obsession compulsion in relation to sexual behavioural addictions, could produce quite interesting results.

Boyle, Karen. (2000). “The Pornography Debates: Beyond Cause and Effect.” Women’s Studies International Forum, 23 (2), pp. 187-195.

This article takes a feminist perspective to the pornography industry, examining the harm that is created by its mere existence. It examines the different mediums which can be used to transmit pornographic material, highlighting the fact that with different mediums, different effects occur. This article examines the issue of developing a common definition of pornography, and identifies that without a common definition it becomes quite difficult to apply current findings to a feminist perspective. The author examines not only the effects of the consumption and production of such material, but further examines the violence which is created by this process.

Krone, Tony (2005). “ Queensland Police Stings in Online Chat Rooms.” Australian Institute of Criminology, July, No. 301, pp 1-6.

In the research conducted by Krone, prosecution records of online proactive police investigation were examined in an effort to better understand the effectiveness of these investigations with regard to court prosecutions. Krone noticed that courts appeared to heavily weigh the notion that no actual child was victimized in such investigations, and thus imposed lesser sentences to child sex offenders caught through online proactive investigations.

Lussier, P., Beauregard, E., Proulx, J., and Nicole, A.. (2005). “Developmental Factors Related to Deviant Sexual Preferences in Child Molesters.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20 (9), pp. 999-1017.

This research closely examines risk factors contributing to the development of sexual preferences toward children. Such risk factors are examined through a study of 146 adult males convicted of sexual offences against children. The study examines three factors on the developmental process: negative experiences during childhood; behaviour problems during adolescence; and, sexual criminal activity in adulthood. It was determined that deviant sexual interest in adulthood was related to abuse during childhood, but it must be noted that not all victims of childhood abuse developed deviant sexual behaviour in later years. This article concludes that negative experiences during childhood cannot be considered causes to future deviant sexual behaviour, however, they should be considered possible risk factors.

McCabe, K.A. (2000). “Reports and Communications: Child Pornography and the Internet.” Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 18, No. 1, p. 73-76.

McCabe briefly summarizes child pornography and the Internet by examining the level of public education of local legislation surrounding Internet behaviour in selected southeastern US states. This article examined 261 participant’s knowledge regarding local laws surrounding child pornography and the Internet. McCabe concluded that although the majority of participants were knowledgeable of the local laws surrounding the downloading of child pornography, over a third thought that it was legal to download. The belief that downloading child pornography is legal was assumed to possibly result from the public’s acceptance of adult pornography. It was noted that the Internet provides sex offenders with the ability to locate and take advantage of unsuspecting children. Also, the Internet provides offenders with a more anonymous means for procuring child sexual abuse paraphernalia.

Mitchell, K.L., Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D. (2005). “Police Posing as Juveniles Online to Catch Sex Offenders: Is It Working?” A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17 (3), pp. 241-267.

Mitchell et al. examine a relatively new area within the subject of online child sexual exploitation. The study explores the effectiveness of online proactive police investigations, where police pose as children in an effort to catch sex offenders in the act. The issue of entrapment with regard to such police investigations, and the effectiveness of these investigations when they are presented before the courts are examined. The authors bring the notion forward that if such investigative techniques were accepted by courts and society, they could provide law enforcement with a tool to prevent victimization, in addition to the ability to locate and track offenders.

Pierce, Robert Lee. (1984). “Child Pornography: A Hidden Dimension of Child Abuse.” Child Abuse and Neglect, 8 (4), p. 483-493.

This article briefly summarizes the development of the U.S. child pornography industry, and what has been done within the courts to address this issue. According to this article, it was only post 1977 that a majority of the states (48) and the federal government, enacted laws regulating child pornography. Not only does this article examine the legality of child pornography, it also explores factors that can predispose children to becoming entangled in child pornography. The most predominate characteristics appear to revolve around runaway children. The difficulties in dealing with affected children, and the effect that child pornography has are also examined.


Aisbett, Kate. (2001). The Internet at Home: A Report on Internet Use in the Home. Sydney:

Australian Broadcasting Authority. Retrieved from:

http://mailman.library.uwa.edu.au/pipermail/newbooks-000/2002/000008.html

Aisbett’s report, written on behalf of the Australian Broadcasting Authority, describes certain risks that are associated with online activities such as luring and exposure to child abuse images and other unwanted content. The author explores safety tips such as parental supervision, software filters, and other forms of online monitoring that parents can employ to limit their child’s exposure to unwanted material. The report also provides statistics regarding the amount of time youth spend online, the different locations youth are likely to use to access the Internet, and the different activities youth engage in while online.

Antrobus, David. (2003). The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children on the West Coast of Canada. Retrieved December 23, 2003, from http://www.vachss.com/guest_dispatches/david_antrobus.html

The author of this position paper explores reasons such as abuse and homelessness that force youth to enter the sex trade in Canada. It is his contention that by allowing children to become prostitutes, society has failed and will continue to do so until appropriate procedures are developed to prevent youth from entering the sex trade and also assist those who want to exit. The solution proposed by the author lies in the education of the public and private sectors.

Benschop, Albert. (2003). Child Pornography in Cyberspace: Traces of Crime. Retrieved November 17, 2003, from
http://www.sociosite.org/pornography_child.php

This article explores the online exploitation of children including child abuse images, luring, and child sex tourism. The author provides information regarding the conditions faced by children who are exploited and includes a section on sexual abuser typologies, an explanation of the grooming process, a description of the child sex tourism industry, and finally, the results of a New Zealand study regarding the online behaviour of children.

Blatchford, Christie. (2004). “Child-Porn Fan Gets Life for Killing Toronto Girl.” The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 18, 2004 from http://www.globeandmail.com

This newspaper article provides information relating to the abduction, sexual assault, murder, and dismemberment of Holly Jones. The article also includes a statement of guilt by Michael Briere and a victim impact statement from Holly’s mother Marie Jones. The position taken by the author is that in this case, a causal link can be found regarding the viewing of child abuse images and sexual offending. According to the Globe and Mail, Mr. Briere was an avid consumer of “child pornography” both at home and at work. Moreover, the pictures that were downloaded featured prepubescent girls (10-12 years old), the same age bracket as Holly Jones. The existence of a direct causal link between viewing child abuse images and committing contact offences was also suggested by several senior Toronto police officials.

Bonnell, Greg. (n.d.). Predators on the Web: Did you Hear the one About the Teenager who Told her Parents Absolutely Everything About her Life? For Most Kids, That Joke Doesn’t Need a Punch Line. After all, who Tells Their Parents Everything? Retrieved April 30, 2004 from http://www.digitaldefence.ca

This online media report focuses on the aspects of anonymity and trust associated with the “grooming” process, a common occurrence in online relationships. The author describes certain behavioural characteristics that an online predator is likely to search for in a potential victim such as youths who are lonely, rebellious, experiencing troubled relationships at home, or those who actively engage in risky online behaviour such as explicit sex talk. The article concludes with several suggestions to ensure online safety ranging from nickname selection to privacy protection. This article provides a strong introduction regarding the sexual exploitation of children online.

Bullen, Pat, and Harre, Niki. (2000). The Internet: Its Effects on Safety and Behaviour. Aukland, New Zealand: University of Aukland, Department of Psychology.

This report, written on behalf of the University of Aukland, highlights the behaviour of youth online. The authors explore issues of Internet use including risk, anonymity, addiction, the sharing of personal information, exposure to unwanted content, and sexual solicitations. The reported findings indicate that 60% of adolescent girls participate in cybersex, 41% of youth have made offline contact with an online “friend”, and 40% of adolescent girls divulge personal information online.

Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime. (2000). Child Sexual Exploitation and the Internet.

This resource explores the various dangers associated with Internet use. The author(s) discuss prevention measures such as filters, law enforcement, and the role of Internet Service Providers. A detailed summary of the 1,501 interviews conducted for the Youth Internet Safety Survey is included in addition to several initiatives taken by law enforcement and legislators thus far. This report is useful in that it clearly demonstrates the seriousness of the online sexual exploitation of children.

Carr, John. (2001). Theme Paper on Child Pornography. Second World Congress on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Yokohama, Japan.

Writing on behalf of the National Children’s Home: Action for Children, Carr’s theme paper is an excellent resource on child abuse images. He provides a detailed account of the grooming process, the issues surrounding age of consent, how sexual abusers use child abuse images, and finally, the importance of victim identification. Other areas explored in this paper include Operation Cathedral, the largest international policing operation in history that identified 180 W0nderland Club members along with child abuse images depicting 1,263 different children and Operation Special Delivery which led to the prosecution of 95 individuals in 36 states. Finally, the author introduces Internet Hotlines for Europe (INHOPE) and the Children’s Charities Coalition for Internet Safety which are organizations that allow individuals to report suspicious material found on the Internet and are similar to the cyber tipline in the United States and cybertip.ca in Canada. The Children’s Charities Coalition for Internet Safety includes Childline, the National Children’s Home: Action for Children, Barnardo’s, the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, the National Children’s Bureau, the National Council for Voluntary Child Care Organizations, and the Children’s Society.

Carr, John. (2003). Child Abuse, Child Pornography and the Internet. National Children’s Home (NCH). London.

Carr, an Internet consultant for National Children’s Home: Action for Children, examines the production, circulation, and possession of child abuse images and the possible connection to contact offences. The sexual abuser’s modus operandi is also examined in this article however the evidence that is provided demonstrating a “strong” link between the viewing of child pornography and committing sexual offences is weak. The report also provides summaries of Operations Ore and Avalanche and concludes with a section on the need for sexual abusers to receive appropriate treatment such as cognitive-behavioural therapy.

Child Find Manitoba. (2003). Cybertip.ca: Taking Stock a Year Later. Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Cybertip.ca is an Internet based tipline developed by Child Find Manitoba for the reporting of child abuse images, luring, child sex tourism, and child prostitution. Cybertip.ca also gathers statistics to identify trends and information for police and policy development. The organization has used the information they receive to develop potential victim profiles and identify the techniques that were used in the luring process.

Fadel, Fadi. (n.d.). Exiting: A Peer Support Model for Exiting and Healing Programmes. International Centre to Combat Exploitation of Children. Vancouver, British Columbia.

This article illustrates the various difficulties faced by exploited youth when attempting to break the cycle of their exploitation. Fadel provides facts regarding sexually exploited youth, and also discusses the barriers faced when trying to exit from a pattern of victimization. A detailed description of the healing wheel is provided which is crucial for those attempting to exit as it serves as a structured framework that is designed for success as it allows for relapses and other factors likely to occur throughout the exiting process. The article is also useful due to the prevention strategies and suggestions that are discussed.

Finkelhor, David, Mitchell, Kimberly J., and Wolak, Janis. (2000). Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation’s Youth (Youth Internet Safety Survey). Alexandria, VA: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, pgs. 1-50.

This study is an informative resource on online victimization of youth. The authors provide statistics regarding sexual solicitations, aggressive sexual solicitations, exposure to unwanted material, and harassment based on interviews conducted with a sample of 1,501 youth living in the United States. The report also explores methods of prevention such as Internet education campaigns, filters, and parental supervision to ensure online safety. The various reasons for under-reporting such as embarrassment and fear of being disconnected by their parents from online activities are also discussed. Although the study is very detailed on the topic, there are validity and reliability limitations.

Finkelhor, David, Mitchell, Kimberly J., and Wolak, Janis. (2001). Highlights of the Youth Internet Safety Survey. United States Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

This document provides a summary of the findings from the Youth InternetSafety Survey. The key findings reveal that of the 1,501 youth interviewed, 20% received unwanted sexual solicitations, 3% received an aggressive sexual solicitation involving offline contact, 25% were exposed to unwanted sexual material, and 6% were harassed. Although the report provides a detailed summary of the research, it does not contain any information not already included in the study.

Grant, Anna, David, Fiona, and Grabosky, Peter. (1997). “Child Pornography in the Digital Age.” Transnational Organized Crime, Vol. 3, No. 4, pgs. 171-188.

This academic journal article explores various issues surrounding child pornography on the Internet. Definitional issues along with jurisdictional dilemmas and the various challenges faced by legislators are presented. With regard to legislation, the author summarizes the child pornography laws that are currently in place in Australia, the United States, and Canada. The majority of the article, however, is devoted to explaining the impact that technological advances such as Internet Relay Chat, the World Wide Web, and encryption are having on child pornography. Finally, the author reviews the current responses made by law enforcement agencies in different jurisdictions as well as the different non-profit organizations working to eradicate the online exploitation of children.

Home Office Task Force on Child Protection on the Internet. (n.d.). Good Practice Models and Guidance for the Internet Industry on: Chat Services, Instant Messaging, and Web-Based Services.

Established in 2001, the Home Office Task Force was created to educate Internet users regarding the dangers of online activity, specifically, online grooming. The report provides in-depth descriptions of the World Wide Web, instant messaging, and chat features. Each section includes a description of the technology, the safety concerns associated with its use, advice and tools to increase safety, and suggestions on the various methods available to report serious incidents. The report also demonstrates to the reader how child sexual offenders use chat and instant messaging services including webcams, picture exchanges, and hand-held devices, to search for, groom, isolate, and manipulate victims.

Horton, Merlyn. (2001). Places of Risk, Places of Help. Internet Exploitation: An Overview of Existing Technology. Retrieved July 27, 2004 from:
http://www.safeonlineoutreach.org/content/places_places_of_risk.html

This report provides in-depth descriptions of the different technologies associated with the Internet that can be used to produce, collect, trade, and export child pornography. Technological advances such as Internet Relay Chat, instant messaging, audio-video conferencing, Internet telephony, newsgroups, and peer to peer file transfers are discussed as are the various direct and indirect risks associated with the use of these technologies and their impact on society.

James, Marianne. (1996). “Paedophilia.” Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, Vol. 57, pgs. 1-6.

This academic journal article defines paedophilia, compares and contrasts paedophiles and child molesters, and lists various offences attributed to paedophiles. In addition, James outlines the “grooming” procedure that a paedophile is likely to follow and includes an analysis of the benefits of cognitive-behavioural treatment in reducing recidivism. Although this article does provide statistics (collected by other authors using a variety of methods) regarding the number of men and women who have been sexually abused, the report pertains to offences that occurred in real space; online offending is not discussed.

Jones, Vernon. (2003). Position Paper on Child Pornography and Internet-Related Sexual Exploitation of Children. Save the Children Europe Group.

This position paper captures the seriousness of Internet-based child exploitation. The author examines the manipulation, violence, and physical abuse that each child is subjected to in order to produce a single child abuse image. She emphasizes the need for identified victims to receive appropriate treatment in an effort to end the trauma and prevent further victimization. A description of the technology used (peer to peer programmes, newsgroups, e-mail, and websites) is provided and the role technology can play in the victimization of children as well as in the detection of child sexual abusers is discussed.

Koontz, Linda. (2004). File Sharing Programs: Users of Peer-to-Peer Networks Can Readily Access Child Pornography. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office.

This report explains that peer to peer networks are used by paedophiles and sexual abusers to trade child abuse images and also act as a forum for discussion regarding paedophilia and contact offending. An in-depth examination of how peer to peer networks operate is provided, as are methods law enforcement professionals use to detect offenders connected to these networks due to the fact that anonymity is not always possible. According to the decentralized model of peer to peer networks, the users are less vulnerable to copyright laws as a result of no server being required. However, this feature does not provide anonymity due to the virtualname space that links the individual with the Internet address of the computer being used. Therefore, during the file sharing process, the user’s Internet address can be discovered. Using 12 key words known to be associated with child abuse images online, a search was conducted by the Customs Cybersmuggling Center using KaZaA, a peer to peer file sharing program and yielded 1,286 items, 42% of which were associated with child pornography.

Li, Chin-Keung. (1990). “The Main Thing is Being Wanted.” Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 20-1/2, pgs. 129-141.

In his academic journal article, Li, a clinical psychologist writing for the University of Cambridge, attempts to explain the offence of sexual abuse from a paedophile’s perspective by analyzing 100 hours of tape-recorded material gathered through interviews with 27 men who have had sexual contact with children. According to the interviews conducted by Li, paedophiles choose children for sexual relationships because they are attracted to qualities such as love and childhood enjoyment which they contend are not available in the adult world. According to Li, paedophiles do not view children as substitutes for adult sexual partners; they make a conscious choice to be with children.

Miller, Kylie. (1997). “Detection and Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse (Specifically Paedophilia): A Law Enforcement Perspective.” Paedophilia: Policy and Prevention, Vol. 12, pgs. 32-38.

This academic journal article, written for the Australian Institute of Criminology, provides the reader with a short discussion of paedophilia including a definition, a list of common characteristics, and the typical profile of a paedophile. In addition, the article explores the various reasons why sexual abuse by paedophiles is under-reported. This is important because victim reports are crucial for victim identification; the development of statistics, profiles of offenders and potential victims; and finally, to ensure that survivors are given access to appropriate treatment.

Mitchell, Kimberly J., Finkelhor, David, and Wolak Janis. (2001). “Risk Factors for and Impact of Online Sexual Solicitation of Youth.” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 285, No. 23, pgs. 3,011-3,014.

This report is similar to the report highlighting the Youth Internet Safety Survey in that it provides further discussion on the study conducted in 2000. This brief report examines the section of the study exploring sexual solicitations in addition to identifying the characteristics of youth who are at risk. These characteristics include youth who are alienated or depressed in addition to those who engage in high risk online behaviour such as entering chat rooms to converse with strangers.

Mitchell, Kimberly J., Finkelhor, David, and Wolak, Janis. (2003). “The Exposure of Youth to Unwanted Material on the Internet: A National Survey of Risk, Impact, and Prevention.” Youth and Society, Vol. 34, No. 3, pgs. 330-358.

This survey explores the possible risks faced by youth who are exposed to unwanted material while online. The authors also examine the debate between free speech and child protection. Although this survey is an extension of the Youth InternetSafetySurvey, it focuses solely on the exposure of youth to unwanted content. Included in this survey are statistics obtained in the study, the classification of images the youth were exposed to, the methods youth used to escape, and the methods they used to report the incident. The authors also discuss the impact this type of exposure can have on attitudes towards sex, the Internet, and safety.

O’Connell, Rachel. (2003). A Typology of Cybersexploitation and Online Grooming Practices. Retrieved July 19 th, 2004 from:
http://www.uclan.ac.uk/host/cru/docs/cru010.pdf

O’Connell’s study was conducted to investigate the collection, dissemination, and trading of child erotica and child pornography on the Internet, to explore the psychological factors that contribute to adults developing a sexual interest in children, and finally, to inform law enforcement with the intent of making them more effective in the fight against the online exploitation of children. Through participant observation, the researcher conducted 50 hours of research in chat rooms throughout a five year period posing as an 8, 10, or 12 year old female. The researcher’s breakdown of the grooming process into 13 distinct stages is quite informative and the report concludes with a number of recommendations regarding legislative change and policing strategies.

Out from the Shadows: International Summit of Sexually Exploited Youth Final Report. (1998). Victoria: University Press.

The declaration and agenda for action of sexually exploited children and youth should be used as a resource when developing prevention programs. This report describes the roles that should be played by youth, parents, educators, government, and the media. These roles include the development and implementation of prevention programs, providing victims with access to emergency professionals with the appropriate training, and finally, educating the public to eliminate the stereotypes associated with sexually exploited children. A principle argument outlined in this report is that youth should be included in each step of the planning process. Youth should also be involved in staffing the hotlines, outreach programs, crisis counseling and mentoring programs. A final key point examined in this report is that those who wish to exit from a life of exploitation must be protected not prosecuted.

Quayle, Ethel and Taylor, Max. (2002). “Paedophiles, Pornography, and the Internet: Assessment Issues.” British Journal of Social Work, Vol. 32, pgs. 863-875.

These researchers explore the different motivations paedophiles have for collecting pornography. Using data collected from interviews with offenders and professionals in the field for ongoing research by the COPINE Project, the authors cite reasons ranging from sexual arousal to using child abuse images as a tool to blackmail victims. The article also explains how various online features such as newsgroups, Internet Relay Chat, and bulletin board systems are used by paedophiles to locate, groom, and sexually abuse children. Although the article suggests that child abuse images and paedophilia are linked, it fails to demonstrate a causal relationship.

Renold, Emma, and Creighton, Susan. (2003). Images of Abuse: A Review of the Evidence on Child Pornography. London: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

This literature review examines the difficulty of defining child abuse images as the legislation regarding what is considered child pornography varies with each jurisdiction. The authors explore how the patterns of production, distribution, and consumption have changed since the late 1970’s, while also focusing on the psychological trauma experienced by the children throughout the stages of their exploitation (abused, photographed, and knowing that the picture will always be in cyberspace). The article also discusses the impact the Internet has had on child abuse images.

Rettinger, L. Jill. (2000). The Relationship between Child Pornography and the Commission of Sexual Offences against Children: A Review of the Literature. Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved April 10, 2004, from http://canada.justice.gc.ca/en/ps/rs/rep/rr00-5.html

Rettinger’s literature review examined several studies that explored the possible connection between viewing child pornography and sexual offending. According to the research, which was conducted through self-reports and in-person interviews with paedophiles, child molesters, and sex offenders targeting adults, these offenders rarely viewed child pornography. Although some offenders reported that viewing child and/or adult pornography was a contributing factor in their offence, others suggested that viewing pornography diminished their deviant urges. A causal link between viewing child pornography and sexual offending has yet to be established within this body of research. Research investigating the link between viewing child pornography and sexual offending is characterized by many concerns including inconsistent definitions of child pornography, the utilization of different methodologies across studies, and voluntary consent to participate in this type of research.

“Sexual Assault on Youth.” (2002). School-Based Violence Prevention Programs: A Resource Manual to Prevent Violence Against Girls and Young Women. University of Calgary Resolve. Retrieved from http://www.ucalgary.ca/resolve/violenceprevention.html

This article, written for the University of Calgary, explores various methods of prevention while promoting victim empathy with regard to the crime of sexual assault. According to the article, prevention strategies should be taught in grade five or six and should incorporate various presentation methods. Considering sexual assault is similar to online exploitation in that both result in extensive psychological trauma and are also heavily under-reported, victim empathy is crucial throughout prevention, arrest, and treatment.

“Sexually Exploited Youth.” (2002). School-Based Violence Prevention Programs: A Resource Manual to Prevent Violence Against Girls and Young Women. University of Calgary Resolve. Retrieved from http://www.ucalgary.ca/resolve/violenceprevention.html

This article, written for a University of Calgary publication, examines the issue of youth prostitution in Canada. Similar to other forms of child exploitation, the victims of youth prostitution come from differing socioeconomic backgrounds. Also included is an outline regarding school-based sexual exploitation prevention programs including program objectives, program content, teacher training, and parental involvement.

Storrow, Marvin R.V., and Millen, Roy. (n.d.). Child Pornography and Freedom of Expression in Canada. The International Society for the Reform of Criminal Law Technology and its Effects on Criminal Responsibility, Security, and Criminal Justice.

This report compares the Sharpe (Canada) and Ashcroft (United States) child pornography cases. An important aspect of this report is the discussion of the artistic merit defence used by Sharpe which states that an accused cannot be found guilty if the representation or written material that is alleged to constitute child pornography has artistic merit or an educational, scientific, or medical purpose. This resource is useful to compare and contrast the differences and similarities between Canadian and American legislation regarding child pornography.

Taylor, Max. (2001). Child Pornography and the Internet: Challenges and Gaps.

In this paper, presented to the Second World Congress against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Taylor describes the activity of collecting child abuse images online and possible motivations for doing so. A discussion regarding the importance of research to identify the effects this behaviour has on the children who are exploited is also included. Finally, the author examines the idea of educating potential offenders with regard to the impact their future behaviour can have on youth.

Taylor, Max. (2002). The Nature and Dimensions of Child Pornography on the Internet. Retrieved April 6, 2004, from http://www.ipce.info/library_3/files/nat_dims_kp.htm

This paper, written on behalf of University College Cork in Cork, Ireland, focuses on the problems associated with online child abuse images. Jurisdictional issues, using technology to alter photographs (morphing), and using the Internet to form paedophile networks are some of the issues presented by Taylor. In addition, he suggests a typology to classify the different pictures paedophiles and sexual abusers are likely to search for as well as the different stages of paedophile involvement. Finally, he explores the activity of collecting child abuse images as a psychological problem and examines the role the Internet has played in the development of the collector syndrome.

Taylor, Max, Quayle, Ethel, and Holland, Gemma. (2001). “Child Pornography, the Internet and Offending.” The Canadian Journal of Policy Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, pgs. 94-100.

In addition to providing an explanation regarding the various forms of technology used by sexual abusers to lure potential victims, this article provides the reader with a complete description of the COPINE Project. The COPINE Project, working in coordination with Ireland, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United States, seeks to address the vulnerability of children with regard to new technologies. The organization maintains a reference database of child abuse images, assesses the dangerousness of a paedophile by analyzing their collection of child abuse images, and researches the nature and incidence of sex tourism and child trafficking.

Tremblay, Pierre. (2002). Social Interactions Among Paedophiles. Montreal, Quebec: Canadian Ministry of Justice.

Tremblay, researching for the University of Montreal, attempts to analyze the conditions that allow paedophiles to form social networks and overcome their isolation. Based on interviews with 19 repeat offenders (17 convicted of sex-related offences), it is the author’s contention that people are not more likely to become paedophiles due to the Internet but rather now have a medium to discuss their thoughts with other like-minded individuals. In addition to facilitating the development of paedophile networks, the author also discusses how the Internet is used by paedophiles to locate potential victims. Although the conclusions put forth in this article are grounded in social learning and anomie theory, the data discussed was collected from interviews with offenders which raise possible validity concerns such as honesty and voluntary consent.

Walker, Duncan. (2003). Hi-Tech Tool Against Paedophiles Unveiled. Retrieved

June 28, 2004, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/uk_news/politics/3091663.stm

This British Broadcasting Corporation article briefly describes the Childbase image database system currently being used by the United Kingdom’s National Crime Squad under the direction of Assistant Chief Constable Jim Gamble. The author explains how the system is able to “map” a face and then turn it into a string of digits allowing it to be compared with other pictures stored in the database. Although this article is a great example of a proactive law enforcement approach, the description of the software is limited due to security concerns.

Wolak, Janis, Mitchell, Kimberly J., and Finkelhor, David. (2003). “Escaping or Connecting? Characteristics of Youth who Form Close Online Relationships.” Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 26, pgs. 105-119.

This academic journal article attempts to identify the contributing factors that cause youth to form close online relationships. The authors, who are basing their theories on the Youth Internet Safety Survey which they conducted in 2000, conclude that youth who experience high parental conflicts, have poor communication with their parents, and are involved in a high degree of delinquent behaviour (alcohol or drug use), are more likely to develop online relationships thus increasing their chances of being targeted by online predators. Issues such as depression, peer victimization, high Internet use, and being troubled were also examined to identify the impact they have regarding the online behaviour of youth.

Wolak, Janis, Mitchell, Kimberly J., and Finkelhor, David. (2003). Internet Sex Crimes Against Minors: The Response of Law Enforcement. Alexandria, VA: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.

The national juvenile online victimization study (N-JOV) was the first study to examine the number and characteristics of arrests related to the online exploitation of youth. The researchers identified three offences associated with child abuse images and the Internet: Internet crimes against identified victims, solicitations to undercover police, and possession, distribution, and/or trading of child abuse images. The report suggests a link between child abuse images and contact offences (67%)and also explains the importance of reporting sexual offences to law enforcement authorities. Also included in the report are descriptions of the research methodology as well as statistics, graphs, and charts.